International Law Journals
Some of the editors of various international law journals meet regularly at ESIL events in order to exchange ideas and information, and to develop an ongoing dialogue about matters related to international law publishing.
If you are the editor of a journal which is not listed here, or if the information about your journal is incorrect or incomplete, please send details to firstname.lastname@example.org and the list can be amended.
Journals which place an emphasis on various aspects of international law are listed below in alphabetical order:
- African Journal of Legal Studies
Editor-in-Chief: J. Janewa Osei-Tutu
Editorial Board: Charles C. Jalloh, Simon M. Meisenberg, Srividhya Ragavan.
The African Journal of Legal Studies (AJLS) is a peer-reviewed and interdisciplinary academic journal focusing on human rights and rule of law issues in Africa as analyzed by lawyers, economists, political scientists and others drawn from throughout the continent and the world. The journal, which was established by the Africa Law Institute and is now co-published in collaboration with Brill | Nijhoff, aims to serve as the leading forum for the thoughtful and scholarly engagement of a broad range of complex issues at the intersection of law, public policy and social change in Africa.
- African Yearbook of International Law Online
Editor-in-Chief: Abdulqawi A. Yusuf Associate Editors: Mpazi Sinjela, Fatsah Ouguergouz.
Founded in 1993, the African Yearbook, now also published online is published under the auspices of the African Foundation for International Law. It is the only scholarly publication devoted exclusively to the study, development, dissemination and wider appreciation of international law in Africa as a whole.
- Arab Law Quarterly
Editor-in-Chief: Haider Ala Hamoudi
Associate Editor: Lena-Maria Möller
Arab Law Quarterly is the leading English language scholarly publication on matters relating to the law of Arab states. It is indispensable not only for Arab law scholars, but also for those working in the fields of Middle Eastern law, Islamic law, and comparative law. The subject areas covered within the Journal include comparative works involving states both within and beyond the Arab world, works focused on law in a single state within the Arab world, and works describing the implementation of Islamic law in one or more Arab states. In addition to the foregoing, the Journal also publishes book reviews of recently published books, review essays of one or more recent books, and “jurisprudential trends”, which are commentaries on recent laws, cases, administrative decisions, or other discrete jurisprudential developments of interest in the Arab world.
- Armenian Yearbook of International and Comparative Law
Editor in Chief: Yeghishe Kirakosyan, Ph.D. Editorial Board: Levon Gevorgyan, Ph.D., Taron Simonyan, Ph.D., Siranush Sahakyan, Anna Gevorgyan, Stepan Khzrtyan, Edgar Martirosyan, Talin Hitik, Vladimir Vardanyan, Garen Nazarian.
The Armenian Yearbook of International and Comparative Law is an annual publication, which focuses on a wide range of international and comparative law topics. The Yearbook is being published in English. One of the aims of the Yearbook is to discuss the range of legal issues from the perspective of the Caucasus, as well as to develop the academic research and writing in the field of international and comparative law, by establishing very strict quality requirements for publication . The Yearbook publishes articles, editorial comments, and also includes a section fully devoted to the legal analysis of the international law practice in the region. The Yearbook does not have any topical restrictions to a certain country or region and submissions discussing current issues of international and comparative law are acceptable.
- Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
Co-Editors-in-Chief: Seokwoo Lee, Clive Schofield
The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy explores ocean law and policy issues in the most economically dynamic region in the world: the Asia-Pacific. These ocean spaces are crucial to international trade and are becoming increasingly important in terms of marine resources and services. Hotly contested, the region is subject to enhanced threats such as pollution, conflicting activities, over-exploitation and environmental degradation. Escalating ocean governance challenges coupled with mounting tensions in the region have made studies focusing on this area an especially pertinent topic for scholarly research and consideration in securing and maintaining peace in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.
- Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law
Editors-in-Chief: Simon N.M. Young, Kelley LoperThe Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law is the world’s only law journal offering scholars a forum in which to present comparative, international and national research dealing specifically with issues of law and human rights in the Asia-Pacific region.
- Austrian Review of International and European Law Online
Editors: Stephan Wittich and Gerhard Loibl
The Austrian Review of International and European Law is an annual publication that provides a scholarly forum for the discussion of issues of international and European law, with emphasis on topics of special interest for Austria.
- Baltic Yearbook of International Law Online
Managing Editor: Carin Laurin.
Editorial Board: Egidijus Bieliunas; Tanel Kerikmäe; Kristīne Krūma; Egils Levits; Rein Müllerson; Lauri Mälksoo; Vilenas Vadapalas; Darius Žalimas; Ineta Ziemele; Pēteris Zilgalvis.
The Baltic Yearbook of International Law is an annual publication which focuses on a wide range of international law topics. It aims in particular at introducing readers to issues that are topical for the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and for other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Each volume addresses a particular theme. So far the Baltic Yearbook has among other themes contained articles on the History of International Law in Central and Eastern Europe, the 90th Anniversary of the Creation of the Baltic States, and Arbitration in the Baltics. The Baltic Yearbook is a unique source of information on the practice of the three Baltic States in International Law.
- Brill Research Perspectives in Comparative Discrimination Law
Editor-in-Chief: Laura Carlson
Brill Research Perspectives in Comparative Discrimination Law addresses discrimination issues both horizontally (discrimination law as an overarching framework) as well as vertically (specific topics within discrimination law – for example, age, sex, race, and disability – at national, regional, and international levels). Theoretical approaches as well as more pragmatic approaches, such as active measures, are also examined. Each quarterly issue comprises a single short monograph of 50-100 pages presenting state-of-the-art research and analysis of a selected subject.
- Brill Research Perspectives in International Banking and Securities Law
Editors-in-Chief: Armin J. Kammel, Sandra Annette Booysen, Christian A. Johnson
Brill Research Perspectives in International Banking and Securities Law addresses legal and regulatory developments in the area of banking and securities law from both international and interdisciplinary perspectives. It reviews and advances scholarship in this complex area of law and is of interest to academics, practitioners, and policy makers.
- Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration
Editors-in-Chief: Ian A. Laird, Borzu Sabahi
Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration provides a systematic review of key topics in this increasingly important area of international law and practice. Foreign investment (particularly FDI) continues to be a catalyst for development. To promote and protect the flow of such investments, countries worldwide have entered into thousands of investment treaties and domestic investment laws, which requires them to protect foreign investment in their territories. These treaties also allow foreign investors to directly sue governments before international arbitration tribunals for treaty violations ranging from old-fashioned “expropriation without compensation” to violations of more modern protections such as the so-called “fair and equitable” standard of treatment. The claims raise a mix of public international law, private and public law, and public policy issues requiring an examination of the legitimacy of a government’s exercise of its core functions including regulatory (involving taxation, health, and environment), administrative, and police powers and the balance of those against foreign investors’ rights under the treaties. This journal addresses these issues and aims to provide an authoritative reference guide for scholars and practitioners.
- Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law
Editor-in-Chief: Salman M.A. Salman
Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law is a hybrid journal and reference publication for research output on shared freshwater resources. Population growth, economic activities, environmental degradation, and climate change have exacerbated competition and ignited disputes over water resources (both surface water and groundwater) shared by two or more states. The entry into force of the United Nations Watercourses Convention has refocused the attention of the world community on shared water resources and underscored the pressing need for their equitable and sustainable sharing, inclusive and proper management, and environmental protection.
- Brill Research Perspectives in Law and Religion
Editor-in-Chief: Norman Doe
Legal issues concerning religion increasingly make the news headlines these days. As a result, the intersection of law and religion is today an established but growing field of scholarship worldwide. Just as the bourgeoning field whose name it shares, Brill Research Perspectives in Law and Religion seeks to better understand how the phenomena of law and religion interact and to stimulate practical debate on the diverse range of issues involved. The place of religion in society, religious pluralism, the fear of religious extremism, and the terms and limits of religious freedom generate a host of important questions on the interface of law and religion.
- Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea
Editors-in-Chief: Donald R. Rothwell, Davor Vidas
Brill Research Perspectives in the Law of the Sea advances scholarship in the international law of the sea with a publication that combines analysis of theoretical and conceptual frameworks, recent thematic trends, contemporary judicial decisions, and recent state practice. The publication focuses not only on global developments but also on regional and — where appropriate — sub-regional developments and perspectives. All areas of the law of the sea are treated, including maritime zones, navigational rights and freedoms, resource management, maritime regulation and enforcement, marine environmental management, oceans governance, and dispute resolution. Particular attention is given to those analyses and developments that are at the forefront of the law of the sea, some of which may be at the intersection with other areas of international law.
- Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime
Editor-in-Chief: Valsamis Mitsilegas
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime is the first major research series focusing exclusively on the growing academic and policy area of transnational crime. The aim of the publication is to be interdisciplinary, inviting contributions in the field of transnational criminal law but also contributions by authors embracing socio-legal, criminological, international relations, and political science perspectives. Contributions by authors with a governmental and policy background are also invited.
- British Yearbook of International Law
Editors: Eyal Benvenisti and Catherine Redgwell
The British Yearbook of International Law has become an essential work of reference for academics and practising lawyers. Through a mixture of articles and extended book reviews it continues to provide up-to-date analysis on important developments in modern international law. It has established a reputation as showcase for the best in international legal scholarship and its articles continue to be cited for many years after publication. In addition, through its thorough coverage of decisions in UK courts and official government statements, The British Yearbookoffers unique insight into the development of state practice in the United Kingdom.
- Chinese Journal of Environmental Law
Editors-in-Chief: Qin Tianbao, Ben Boer
The Chinese Journal of Environmental Law (CJEL) publishes international, comparative, and national research and reviews concerned with environmental law and policy. While CJEL presents leading work from or concerned with China, other Asian regions, and the developing world at large, the journal’s geographic coverage is unlimited, and its scope is intentionally broad. It encompasses diverse areas of international, regional and national environmental law, including biodiversity law, climate change law, energy law, environmental assessment, marine environmental law, natural resources law, planning law and pollution law, as well as institutional developments such as environmental courts, and compliance and enforcement issues.
- CIFILE Journal of International Law (CJIL)
Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Abbas Poorhashemi
The Canadian Institute for International Law Expertise (CIFILE) publishes the CIFILE Journal of International Law (CJIL) is a high-quality, open-access, and peer-reviewed journal related to the Canadian Institute for International Law Expertise (CIFILE). CJIL provides a platform for researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students to impart and share their knowledge in high-quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review articles, literature reviews, book reviews, the conceptual framework from all around the world in the field of International Law including Commercial, Business, Environment, Maritime, Spatial, Politics, Humanitarian and Human rights law. The journal publishes in both print and online versions.
- Climate Law
Editor-in-Chief: Alexander Zahar
A complex legal regime has evolved to frame climate governance, encompassing interconnected public international law, transnational law and private law elements. At the core of the international effort are the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and now the Paris Agreement, the first two of which have spawned innovative features such as carbon trading mechanisms and a sophisticated compliance regime. Municipal legislative action dealing with mitigation and adaptation is gathering pace. The focus of the peer-reviewed journal Climate Law is on the many legal issues that arise internationally and at the state level as climate law continues to evolve.
- European Investment Law and Arbitration Review Online
Editors: Loukas Mitselis and Nikos Lavranos
The European Investment Law and Arbitration Review is the first law periodical specifically dedicated to the field of ‘European Investment Law and Arbitration’. The timing could not be better. The first EU integrated investment treaties with Canada (CETA), US (TTIP) and Singapore (EU-SING) are either negotiated or about to be signed and ratified by the EU and its Member States. These are “integrated” investment treaties in that they combine free trade agreement provisions with international investment agreement norms. Moreover, the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) is about to deliver its first judgments and Opinions directly relating to intra-EU BITs and the EU-SING FTA. More generally, the public debate and discussions within academic and practitioner circles about the pros and cons of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) and investment treaties in general is intensifying almost on a daily basis.
- European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance
Editorial Board: Aurelia Colombi Ciacchi, Sjef van Erp, Adam McCann
The European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance publishes top-level academic contributions in English that explore the phenomena of law and governance from a comparative perspective. It includes comparative studies from different fields of law and regulation as well as multi-disciplinary studies on societal governance issues. Comparative studies involving non-European countries are welcome when they deal with topics relevant also for European science and society. All contributions will be subject to double-blind peer review.
- European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Jannemieke Ouwerkerk
The European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice provides a forum for public debate on these European issues. It seeks not only to bridge the gap between European players and European states, but also to afford space for a non-European view on developments in these fields. Our aim, in other words, is to offer a multi-dimensional international and comparative perspective on crime, criminal law and criminal justice in Europe. We welcome papers from any relevant disciplinary outlook or approach, including those that are contextually, doctrinally, empirically or theoretically based.
- European Journal of Health Law
Editors: Jos Dute, Titti Mattsson, Herman Nys, Henriette Roscam Abbing
The European Journal of Health Law focuses on the development of health law in Europe: national, comparative and international. The exchange of views between health lawyers in Europe is encouraged. The Journal publishes information on the activities of European and other international organizations in the field of health law. Discussions about ethical questions with legal implications are welcome. National legislation, court decisions and other relevant national material with international implications are also dealt with.
- European Journal of International Law
Editor-in-Chief: Joseph Weiler
The European Journal of International Lawis firmly established as one of the world’s leading journals in its field. With its distinctive combination of theoretical and practical approaches to the issues of international law, the journal offers readers a unique opportunity to stay in touch with the latest developments in this rapidly evolving area.
- European Journal of Legal Studies
Editor-in-Chief: Anna Krisztian
Managing Editors: Olga Ceran & Sunita Tripathy
Executive Editors: Lene Korseberg & Timothy Jacob-Owens
The European Journal of Legal Studies (EJLS), founded in 2007, is a European University Institute (EUI) review dedicated to the promotion of legal scholarship. It publishes articles on any topic of legal scholarship relating to European law, international law, comparative law and legal theory.
- European Journal of Migration and Law
Managing Editors: Elspeth Guild, Paul Minderhoud, Sandra Mantu
The European Journal of Migration and Law is a quarterly journal on migration law and policy with specific emphasis on the European Union, the Council of Europe and migration activities within the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. This journal differs from other migration journals by focusing on both the law and policy within the field of migration, as opposed to examining immigration and migration policies from a wholly sociological perspective. The Journal is the initiative of the Centre for Migration Law of the University of Nijmegen, in co-operation with the Brussels-based Migration Policy Group.
The European Journal of Migration and Law provides an invaluable source of information and a platform for discussion for government and public officials, academics, lawyers and NGOs interested in migration issues in the European context. Devoted exclusively to migration law and policy, the original research and analysis the Journal presents will emphasize the development of migration policies across Europe. Each issue will have a cross-disciplinary approach to migration and social issues such as access of migrants to social security and assistance benefits, including socio-legal and meta-juridical perspectives.
- European Yearbook of International Economic Law (EYIEL)
The European Yearbook of International Economic Law (EYIEL) is a Springer-publication in the field of International Economic Law (IEL), a field increasingly emancipating itself from Public International Law scholarship and evolving into a fully-fledged academic discipline in its own right. With the yearbook, editors and publisher make a significant contribution to the development of this “new” discipline and provide an international source of reference of the highest possible quality. The EYIEL covers all areas of IEL, in particular WTO Law, External Trade Law of major trading countries, important Regional Economic Integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. The yearbook consists of four major parts: (1) Part one brings together topical articles dealing with current legal problems in the different areas of IEL as described above, (2) part two provides analytical reports on the development of regional economic integration around the globe, (3) part three covers the developments inside the major international institutions engaged with IEL (WTO, IMF, Worldbank, G8 etc.), and (4) part four contains book reviews and documentation. EYIEL publishes articles following a substantive review by the editors and external experts as appropriate.
- European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online
Managing Editors: Sonja Wolf, Vizi Balázs, Sergiu Constantin, Federica Prina, Mariya Riekkinen, Levente Salat, David Smith, Alexandra Tomaselli
The European Yearbook of Minority Issues provides a critical and timely review of contemporary developments in minority-majority relations in Europe. It combines analysis, commentary and documentation in relation to conflict management, international legal developments and domestic legislation affecting minorities in Europe.
- Evrigenis Yearbook of International and European Law
Editors-in-Chief: Paraskevi Naskou-Perraki & Giannis P. Tzivaras
The Evrigenis Yearbook of International and European Law (EvrIEL), dedicated to Professor Dimitrios Evrigenis, is a new, peer reviewed, Journal, aimed at the publication of original research and scholarship in the fields of Public International and Private International Law, Law of the European Union, Immigration and Asylum Law, International Protection of Human Rights, International Economic Law as well as Legal Informatics, the late Professor’s particular fields of interest. The Journal aims to provide a forum for quality international and European research into all the aforementioned facets, covering general and special issues of the highest impact of both practical and theoretical nature. In support of conducting research, EvrIEL publishes articles, essays, current developments and editorial comments on these topics in English, French, or German and features, also, book reviews by scholars and practitioners that engage with the key words in the field of International and European Law.
- Finnish Yearbook of International Law
Editor-in-Chief: Tuomas Tiittala
The Finnish Yearbook of International Law aspires to honour and strengthen the Finnish tradition in international legal scholarship. Open to contributions from all over the world and from all persuasions, the Finnish Yearbook stands out as a forum for theoretically informed, high-quality publications on all aspects of public international law, including the international relations law of the European Union.
The Finnish Yearbook publishes in-depth articles and shorter notes, commentaries on current developments, book reviews, and relevant overviews of Finland’s state practice. While firmly grounded in traditional legal scholarship, it is open for new approaches to international law and for work of an interdisciplinary nature.
- Forum Prava
Chief Editor: Oleksandr Muzychuk, Executive Secretary: Ihor Zozulia.
Forum prava (Forum of Law) – a peer-reviewed electronic scientific professional journal with open access, founded in 2005.
Its purpose is to achieve a qualitatively new level of completeness and efficiency of meeting the information needs of society in modern knowledge in all areas of law, in particular, in Law enforcement activity, International law and others. The journal discusses the theoretical and conceptual bases, trends in national legislation, judicial decisions and research in various fields of law and regulation of public administration and practice of international importance. The Forum Prava journal selects the best high-ranking articles on the law to acquaint lawyers of the world, Eastern Europe, and especially Ukraine, with the latest achievements in the field of jurisprudence. This helps to expand the results of legal research, share experiences and establish new business contacts and partnerships.
- German Yearbook of International Law
Editors: Nele Matz-Lück and Kerstin Odendahl
The German Yearbook of International Law, founded as the Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, provides an annual report on new developments in international law and is edited by the Walther Schücking Institute for International Law at the University of Kiel and published by Duncker & Humblot.
Since its inception in 1948, the Yearbook has endeavoured to make a significant academic contribution to the ongoing development of international law. Over many decades the Yearbook has moved beyond its origins as a forum for German scholars to publish their research and has become a highly-regarded international forum for innovative scholarship in international law.
- Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence
Editor-in-Chief: Giuliana Ziccardi Capaldo
The Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence (GCYILJ), published by Oxford University Press, now also online (OSO), is a peer-reviewed journal, covered in SCOPUS, first published in 2001. Since then, it has become an authoritative reference on the most significant transformations in the world constitutive process. While providing researchers and practitioners with access to a uniquely rich resource for the study of international jurisprudence, the GCYILJ promotes discussion on current issues that impact substantive and procedural aspects of global law. In this way, the GCYILJ makes it possible to monitor –from year to year and from several perspectives– the development of the international order towards a legal system for a global community.
- Global Journal of Comparative Law
Editor-in-Chief: Francis Botchway
The Global Journal of Comparative Law is a peer reviewed periodical that provides a dynamic platform for the dissemination of ideas on comparative law and reports on developments in the field of comparative law from all parts of the world. In our contemporary globalized world, it is almost impossible to isolate developments in the law in one jurisdiction or society from another. At the same time, what is traditionally called comparative law is increasingly subsumed under aspects of International Law. The Global Journal of Comparative Law therefore aims to maintain the discipline of comparative legal studies as vigorous and dynamic by deepening the space for comparative work in its transnational context.
- Global Responsibility to Protect
Editors-in-Chief: Alex J. Bellamy, Sara E.Davies, Luke Glanville
Global Responsibility to Protect is the premier journal for the study and practice of the responsibility to protect (R2P). This journal seeks to publish the best and latest research on the R2P principle, its development as a new norm in global politics, its operationalization through the work of governments, international and regional organizations and NGOs, and finally, its relationship and applicability to past and present cases of genocide and mass atrocities including the global response to those cases. Global Responsibility to Protect also serves as a repository for lessons learned and analysis of best practices; it will disseminate information about the current status of R2P and efforts to realize its promise. Each issue contains research articles and at least one piece on the practicalities of R2P, be that the current state of R2P diplomacy or its application in the field.
- Goettingen Journal of International Law
Editor-in-Chief: Jan-Henrik Hinselmann
The Goettingen Journal of International Law(GoJIL) is an e-journal that focuses on international law. Founded in December 2007 by an interdisciplinary group of students at the University of Goettingen, GoJIL is the first German student-run law journal published entirely in English language.
The journal seeks to foster debate among scholars of international law with its numerous and diverse fields, e.g. international criminal, humanitarian and economic law, while also offering contributions from related disciplines such as international relations, history or economics.
For this purpose, GoJIL runs a permanent open call for papers, ensuring high quality by means of a thorough selection process regarding the significance of the topic for the respective academic discourse and having every submission undergo a double blind peer review.
GoJIL is published in accordance with open access principles.
- Groningen Journal of International Law
Editor-in-Chief: Kyrill Ryabtsev
The Groningen Journal of International Law is a Dutch foundation (Stichting), founded in 2012. The Journal is a not-for-profit, open-access, electronic publication. GroJIL is run by students at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, with supervision conducted by an Advisory Board of academics. The Journal is edited by volunteering students from several different countries and reflects the broader internationalisation of law. The Groningen Journal of International Law aims to promote knowledge, innovation and development. It seeks to serve as a catalyst for author-generated ideas that address the role of international law in facing the challenges of the 21st century. The Journal aims to become a recognised platform for legal innovation with the purpose of developing and promoting the rule of international law through engaging analysis, innovative ideas, academic creativity, and exploratory scholarship.
- Hague Journal on the Rule of Law
Editor in Chief: Ronald Janse, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
The Hague Journal on the Rule of Law (HJRL) is a multidisciplinary journal that aims to deepen and broaden our knowledge and understanding about the rule of law. Its main areas of interest are: (1) current developments in rule of law in domestic, transnational and international contexts (2) theoretical issues related to the conceptualization and implementation of the rule of law in domestic and international contexts; (3) the relation between the rule of law and economic development, democratization and human rights protection; (4) historical analysis of rule of law; (5) significant trends and initiatives in rule of law promotion (practitioner notes). The HJRL is supported by HiiL Innovating Justice, The Hague, the Netherlands and the Paul Scholten Center for Jurisprudence at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
- Hague Yearbook of International Law
Editor-in-Chief : Nikos Lavranos
The Hague Yearbook of International Law is an annual publication that aims to present the newest developments in international law as they are shaped by the numerous international institutions based in The Hague. The first volume of the Hague Yearbook of International Law, which is the successor of the Annual (Hague Academy of International Law Association of Attendees and Alumni) was released in 1969. The title reflects the close ties which have always existed between the Association of Attendees and Alumni of the Hague Academy of International Law and the City of The Hague with its international law institutions. In view of the various international institutions that are situated in The Hague, the scope of the Hague Yearbook of International Law is very broad, covering public international law, private international law, international criminal law as well as relevant European law. Accordingly, the Hague Yearbook of International Law provides a forum for practitioners that are working at the international institutions as well as scholars to present their views on the trends and practice of international law. In particular, the Hague Yearbook of International Law welcomes submissions from young practitioners and scholars from around the world.
- Heidelberg Journal of International Law/Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrrecht
Editors: Armin von Bogdandy and Anne Peters in association with Jochen Abr. Frowein and Rüdiger Wolfrum
Managing Editor: Robert Stendel
The Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (ZaöRV)/Heidelberg Journal of International Law (HJIL) is a peer reviewed, open access Journal published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg. The journal is a forum for discussing fundamental and current issues of public international law, European Union law, comparative public law, and occasionally topics in the domestic public law of EU member states and beyond. It publishes contributions by authors from all over the world, with a wide gamut of scholarly methods and outlooks. The ZaöRV/HJIL particularly seeks to discuss controversial issues, in line with the Institute’s commitment to problem-oriented foundational legal scholarship. The journal is bilingual (English and German). It thereby continues to serve the German-speaking community. All German pieces are made visible to the international readership by their English abstracts and translated titles.
The full texts of all contributions published after 2020 are available in the Nomos e-Library. Previous content is permanently stored and freely accessible on www.zaoerv.de.
- Human Rights & International Legal Discourse
Editorial Board: Eva Brems, Koen De Feyter, Cedric Ryngaert, Stefaan Smis, Stefan Sottiaux, Wouter Vandenhole, Kim Van der Borght, Jan Wouters
Human Rights & International Legal Discourse is a peer-reviewed law journal that encourages the critical study of the increasing influence of human rights law on international legal discourse. In addition to traditional international public law, the journal aims to focus on the interaction of human rights law with specific domains of international law, including international development law, international environmental law, international criminal law, international labour law, and international trade law. The journal places special emphasis on promoting a north-south dialogue.
- Human Rights Law Review
Editor-in-Chief: David Harris
Human Rights Law Review promotes awareness, knowledge, and discussion on matters of human rights law and policy.
The Review publishes critical articles that consider human rights in their various contexts, from global to national levels, book reviews, and a section dedicated to analysis of recent jurisprudence and practice of the UN and regional human rights systems.
- Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law
Editor-in-Chief: Marcel Szabó
The Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law is a collection of articles written mostly by Hungarian authors covering developments in the field of international law and EU law, and progress in domestic implementation and application of these fields of law. The objective of the Yearbook is to provide a forum for legal discussion on actual developments of international and European law, and to examine cases, new legislation, events and jurisprudence related to Hungary and Central-Eastern Europe, and Hungarian (Central-Eastern European) legislation from an international law and European law perspective.
- Indian Journal of Projects, Infrastructure, and Energy Law
Managing Editor: Naman Anand
IJPIEL is a student-run law journal and blog founded in July 2020 by a group of students from Universities across the nation led by me. It undertakes its operations under the aegis of the IJPIEL Academic Research Foundation, a Not-for-Profit company. Consequently, all our publications are open-access, and we do not charge any publication fee.
The Indian Journal of Projects, Infrastructure, and Energy Law (IJPIEL) has 1.5M+ impressions and has published 220+ Blog Posts and 2 Journal issues. It is ranked #5 in the ‘Top 30 Global Blogs to follow for Energy Law’ list for 2021 and 2022 (a list that also features global firms such as Greenberg Traurig LLP, Stikeman Elliott, and Latham & Watkins) by Feedspot, a Silicon-Valley based independent ranking agency. Our academic focus spans International and Comparative Public Procurement, Energy, and Construction Law. We also write about Sustainability and ESG trends.
- International and Comparative Law Quarterly
General Editor: Malcolm Evans
Joint General Editor: Robert McCorquodale B. Econ
International & Comparative Law Quarterly (ICLQ) is the journal of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. It publishes papers on public and private international law and also comparative law. It has maintained its pre-eminence as one of the earliest and most important journals of its kind, encompassing human rights and European law. The journal encourages innovative and original articles that explore the interconnectedness between the legal subject areas, moving across the boundaries that divide the law in a way that provides vital analysis at a time when formal distinctions, in scholarship and between jurisdictions, are becoming less relevant. The ICLQattracts scholarship of the highest standard from around the world, which contributes to the maintenance of its truly international frame of reference. The ‘Shorter Articles, Comments, and Notes’ and ‘Current Developments’ sections particularly enable the discussion of highly topical legal issues.
- International Community Law Review
Editor-in-Chief: Malgosia Fitzmaurice
Merging the journals Non-State Actors and International Law and International Law FORUM du droit international, the International Community Law Review (ICLR) addresses all aspects of international law and the international community.
The Journal aims to explore the implications of various traditions of international law, as well as more current perceived hegemonic trends for the idea of an international community. The Journal will also look at the ways and means in which the international community uses and adapts international law to deal with new and emerging challenges. Non-state actors , intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations, individuals, peoples, transnational corporations and civil society as a whole – have changed our outlook on contemporary international law. In addition to States and intergovernmental organizations, they now play an important role. Rather than regional, the focus of ICLR will be multicultural, including alternative and/or critical approaches, with contributions written by scholars from all parts of the globe. The International Community Law Review, published four times a year, consists of articles, shorter articles/comments, case notes and book reviews.
- International Human Rights Law Review
Editors-in-Chief: Prof. Ilias Bantekas, Prof. Manisuli Ssenyonjo
The International Human Rights Law Review is a bi-annual peer-reviewed journal. It aims to stimulate research and thinking on contemporary human rights issues, problems, challenges and policies. It is particularly interested in soliciting papers, whether in the legal domain or other social sciences, that are unique in their approach and which seek to address poignant concerns of our times. One of the principal aims of the journal is to provide an outlet to human rights scholars, practitioners and activists in the developing world who have something tangible to say about their experiences on the ground, or in order to discuss cases and practices that are generally inaccessible to European and North-American audiences. The Editorial Board and the publisher are keen to work hands-on with such contributors and to help find solutions where necessary to facilitate translation or language editing in respect of accepted articles.
- International Investment Law Journal
Editor-in-Chief: Cristina Elena Popa Tache
Editorial Board: Cristina Elena Popa Tache, Julien Cazala, Catalin-Silviu Sararu, Federica Cristani, Thierry Bonneau
The International Investment Law Journal is an international, peer-reviewed, open access review (free for readers), which publishes original theoretical and empirical work on the law developed by international organizations, the states through investment treaties (IIAs and TIPs) and the international economic actors. International investment rulemaking is taking place at the bilateral, regional, interregional and multilateral levels and it requires policymakers, negotiators, civil society and other stakeholders to be well informed about foreign direct investment, international investment agreements (IIAs) and their impact on sustainable development.
- International Journal of Refugee Law
Editor-in-Chief: Jane McAdam
The International Journal of Refugee Law has fulfilled its promise, as predicted by the Times Higher Education Supplement, in becoming one of the key source materials in the field of refugee protection.
The journal serves as an essential tool for all engaged in the protection of refugees and finding solutions to their problems. It regularly provides key information and commentary on today’s critical issues, including: the causes of refugee and related movements, internal displacement, the particular situation of women and refugee children, the human rights dimension, restrictive policies, asylum and determination procedures, populations at risk, and the conditions in different countries.
- International Journal on Minority and Group Rights
Editor-in-Chief: Gudmundur Alfredsson
The International Journal on Minority and Group Rights is devoted to interdisciplinary studies of the legal, political, economic and social problems which minorities and indigenous peoples face in all countries of the world. For the purposes of the Journal, groups are seen as clearly recognizable segments of society, defined by such relatively constant factors, as national or ethnic origin, religion, culture or language.
Current developments, not least the spread of violent ethnic and religious conflicts, underline the need for a periodical publication dealing with the rights of persons belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples and of the groups themselves. The Journal pays special attention to the contribution which human rights standards and good governance guidelines can make to a better world for all. The Journal aims to become the primary forum for the discussion of the vitally important field of studies which it covers.
- International Labour Law Reports Online
Editor-in-Chief: Jane Aeberhard-Hodges
The International Labour Law Reports is a series of annual publications of labour law judgements by the highest courts in a number of jurisdictions. I.L.L.R. is intended primarily for the use of judges, labour law practitioners, industrial relations specialists and students who need or desire ready access to authoritative information of a comparative nature on problems arising in the field of labour law and industrial relations. Each judgement reprinted in I.L.L.R. is accompanied by Headnotes and in practically all cases by an Annotation which sets forth, among other things, the legal issues involved, the basic facts of the case (if not included in the judgement itself), the relevant statutory provisions and judicial precedents, the labour law and industrial relations context in which the case arose and the significance of the judgement in the development of the law.
- International Labor Rights Case Law
Editors-in-Chief: Paul van der Heijden, Barbara Warwas
The International Labor Rights Case Law focuses primarily on jurisprudential developments relating to fundamental rights at the workplace. The Journal reproduces the relevant texts of key international cases, drawing upon the decision of regional and international mechanisms, such as the ILO Committees, the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights as well as key national courts such as the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany and the Constitutional Court of South Africa. It also contains commentaries on selected decisions from leading international labor law academics from around the world.
- International Organisations Law Review
Editors-in-Chief: Niels M. Blokker and Ramses A. Wessel
The International Organizations Law Review purports to function as a discussion forum for academics and practitioners active in the field of the law of international organizations. It is based on two pillars; one is based in the world of scholarship, the other in the world of practice. In the first dimension, the Journal focuses on general developments in international institutional law. Its main interest lies in general, theoretical, issues rather than in the law of specific organizations.
Equally important, however, are the views from practice. The Review therefore also is a forum to identify and discuss legal developments within international organizations as observed by practitioners. These theory and practice pillars are to support and stimulate each other.
- International Review of the Red Cross
Editor-in-Chief: Vincent Bernard
Established in 1869, the International Review of the Red Cross is a quarterly journal published by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Cambridge University Press. It is a forum for debate on international humanitarian law and humanitarian action and policy, during armed conflict and other situations of violence. It is dedicated to governments, international governmental and non-governmental organisations, universities, the media and all those interested in humanitarian issues at large.
- Irish Yearbook of International Law
Editors: Siobhán Mullally and Fiona de Londras
Launched in 2006, the Irish Yearbook of International Law presents, on an annual basis, peer-reviewed academic articles and book reviews on general issues of international law. Beyond items of a general nature, designated Correspondents provide reports on: international law developments in Ireland; Irish practice in international fora and the European Union; and relations between the North and the South of Ireland. In addition, the Yearbook reproduces documents that reflect Irish practice on contemporary issues of international law.
Publication of The Irish Yearbook of International Law makes Irish practice and opinio juris more readily available to Governments, academics and international bodies when determining the content of international law. In providing a forum for the documentation and analysis of North-South relations the Yearbook makes an important contribution to post-conflict and transitional justice studies internationally.
- Italian Yearbook of International Law Online
Board of Editors: Benedetto Conforti, Luigi Ferrari Bravo, Francesco Francioni, Natalino Ronzitti, Giorgio Sacerdoti, Riccardo Pavoni
Founded in 1975, The Italian Yearbook of International Law aims to disseminate Italian scholarship and practice in the field of international law among non-Italian speaking scholars and practitioners. It features: (i) original, peer-reviewed contributions on a wide range of topical issues; (ii) detailed reports on Italian case law, diplomatic and parliamentary practice, legislation and treaty practice; and (iii) a systematic bibliographical index of Italian literature in the field of international law. The Yearbook also includes a number of reports on the practice of the main international courts and tribunals and extended book reviews.
- Journal of Conflict and Security Law
Editors-in-Chief: Nigel White, Eric Myjer and Robert Cryer
The Journal of Conflict & Security Law is a refereed journal aimed at academics, government officials, military lawyers and lawyers working in the area, as well as individuals interested in the areas of arms control law, the law of armed conflict and collective security law. The journal aims to further understanding of each of the specific areas covered, but also aims to promote the study of the interfaces and relations between them.
- Journal of the History of International Law
Editors-in-Chief: Peter Haggenmacher, Michael Stolleis, Rüdiger Wolfrum
The object of the Journal of the History of International Law/Revue d’histoire du droit international is to contribute to the effort to make intelligible the international legal past, however varied and eccentric it may be, to stimulate interest in the whys, the whats and wheres of international legal development, without projecting present relationships upon the past, and to promote the application of a sense of proportion to the study of current international legal problems. The aim of the Journalis to open fields of inquiry, to enable new questions to be asked, to be awake to and always aware of the plurality of human civilizations and cultures, past and present, and to maintain an appreciation of patterns of cultural flow and interaction that centrally affect international law and its development.
Without abandoning chronology and contextualization, which provide the essential framework within which laws and legal events make sense, the Journal of the History of International Law/Revue d’histoire du droit internationalaims to publish articles, essays and comments on thematic lines as well. By encouraging different methods of approaching the subject it is thought that new light will be cast upon familiar and not so familiar aspects of international law, including private international law.
- Journal of International Criminal Justice
Editor-in-Chief: Salvatore Zappalà
The Journal of International Criminal Justiceaims to promote a profound collective reflection on the new problems facing international law.
Established by a group of distinguished criminal lawyers and international lawyers, the journal addresses the major problems of justice from the angle of law, jurisprudence, criminology, penal philosophy, and the history of international judicial institutions.
- Journal of International Dispute Settlement
Editor-in-Chief: Thomas Schultz
International dispute settlement is a relatively new field of academic study that increasingly combines private and public international law and raises enduring issues of global importance. The growth of the field of international dispute settlement in practice, the novelty and significance of the issues posed, and the originality of the academic angle from which such issues need to be addressed are the factors that triggered the launch of the Journal of International Dispute Settlement. JIDS primarily addresses fundamental and lasting issues of international dispute settlement, and gives preference to articles of enduring importance concerning significant trends in the field. JIDS is open to strictly legal approaches as well as to studies inspired by other disciplines, such as legal sociology, legal theory, the history of law, law and political science, and law and economics.
- Journal of International Humanitarian Legal studies
Editors-in-Chief: Russell Buchan, Emily Crawford, Rain Liivoja
The Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies is a peer reviewed journal aimed at promoting the rule of law in humanitarian emergency situations and, in particular, the protection and assistance afforded to persons in the event of armed conflicts and natural disasters in all phases and facets under international law.
- Journal of International Peacekeeping
Editors: Boris Kondoch, Harvey Langholtz
The Journal of International Peacekeeping is devoted to reporting upon and analyzing international peacekeeping with an emphasis upon legal and policy issues, but is not limited to these issues. Topics include inter alia peacekeeping, peace, war, conflict resolution, diplomacy, international law, international security, humanitarian relief, humanitarian law, and terrorism. The journal is of scholarly quality but is not narrowly theoretical. It provides the interested public – diplomats, civil servants, politicians, the military, academics, journalists, and NGO employees – with an up-to-date source of information on peacekeeping, enabling them to keep abreast of the most important developments in the field. Peacekeeping is treated in a pragmatic light, seen as a form of international military cooperation for the preservation or restoration of international peace and security. Attention is focused not only on UN peacekeeping operations, but other missions as well.
- Journal of World Investment & Trade
Editors-in-Chief: Helene Ruiz Fabri, Stephan W. Schill
The Journal of World Investment & Trade (JWIT) is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal that focuses on the legal aspects of foreign investment relations in a broad sense. This encompasses the law of bilateral, multilateral, regional and sectoral investment treaties, investor-State dispute settlement, and domestic law relating to foreign investment, but also relevant trade law aspects, such as services, public procurement, trade-related investment measures, and intellectual property, both under the WTO framework and preferential trade agreements. In addition, the Journal aims to embed foreign investment law in its broader context, including its interactions with international and domestic law, both private and public, including general public international law, international commercial law and arbitration, international environmental law, human rights, sustainable development, as well as domestic constitutional and administrative law.
- Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals
Editors-in-Chief: Pierre Bodeau-Livinec and Freya Baetens
Firmly established as the leading journal in its field, each issue offers the latest developments with respect to the preparation, adoption, suspension, amendment and revision of Rules of Procedure as well as statutory and internal rules and other related matters. The Journal also provides articles on the latest practice with respect to the interpretation and application of rules of procedure and constitutional documents, which can be found in judgments, advisory opinions, written and oral pleadings as well as legal literature.
- Leiden Journal of International Law
Editors: Carsten Stahn, Eric De Brabandere
Firmly established as one of Europe’s leading journals in the field, the Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL) provides a forum for two vital areas, namely international legal theory and international dispute settlement. It is unique in providing the most comprehensive coverage of the world’s most important international tribunals in The Hague (such as the ICJ, ICTY, ICC and others) and elsewhere, as well as examining new trends in international legal thinking. LJIL is essential reading for academics and practitioners who need to stay abreast of recent developments in these areas.
- London Review of International Law
Editors: Matt Craven, Catriona Drew, Stephen Humphreys, Andrew Lang, Susan Marks, Gerry Simpson
The London Review of International Lawpublishes highest-quality scholarship on international law from around the world. Reflecting the pace and reach of developments in the field, the London Review seeks to capture the ways in which received ideas are being challenged and reshaped by new subject-matters, new participants, new conceptual apparatuses and new cross-disciplinary connections. Central aims of the London Review are to encourage imaginative thinking, inspire innovative analysis, and promote excellence in writing. While no area of international legal interest is excluded, the London Review prioritises non-doctrinal scholarship, including theory, history and socio-legal studies.
- Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online
Editors: Frauke Lachenmann, Rudiger Wolfrum
The Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online offers in-depth articles on issues such as Human Rights, UN organs and Commissions as well as questions of international law in connection with the United Nations. The core of authors proves to be a well balanced mix between young scholars and professors from all over Europe.
This publication constitutes the first scholarly periodical to focus on activities of the United Nations in the field of international law. It recognizes the recent increased impact of the development of the World Organization, its Specialized Agencies and other aspects of the United Nations System, as well as their effect on the shaping of international relations.
- Netherlands International Law Review
Editor in Chief: P. Vlas
The Netherlands International Law Review (NILR) is one of the world’s leading journals in the fields of public and private international law. It is published three times a year, and features peer-reviewed, innovative, and challenging articles, case notes, commentaries, book reviews and overviews of the latest legal developments in The Hague. The NILR was established in 1953 and has since become a valuable source of information for scholars, practitioners and anyone who wants to stay up-to-date of the most important developments in these fields. In the subscription to the Netherlands International Law Review the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) is included.
- Netherlands Yearbook of International Law
Series Editors: W.J.M. van Genugten and R.A. Wessel
The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) was first published in 1970. It offers a forum for the publication of scholarly articles of a more general nature in the area of public international law including the law of the European Union.
- Nordic Journal of International Law
Editor-in-Chief: Ulf Linderfalk
Established in 1930, the Nordic Journal of International Law has remained the principal forum in the Nordic countries for the scholarly exchange on legal development in the international and European domains. Combining broad thematic coverage with rigorous quality demands, it aims to present current practice and its theoretical reflection within the different branches of international law.
- Polish Yearbook of International Law
Editor in Chief: Wladyslaw Czaplinski
Editorial Board: Jan Barcz, Anna Wyrozumska, Karolina Wierczynska, Lukasz Gruszczynski, Andrzej Jakubowski
The Polish Yearbook of International Law (PYIL) is a scientific journal established in 1966 and published by the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee on Legal Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The focus of the Yearbook is on public and private international law as well as European law, with a preference for Central Eastern European scholarship and manuscripts which focus on the region. Each volume of the PYIL also includes a selection of texts on Polish practice in public international law and book reviews.
- Religion & Human Rights
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Jeroen Temperman
Religion & Human Rights provides a unique academic forum for the discussion of issues which are of crucial importance and which have global reach. The Journal covers the interactions, conflicts and reconciliations between religions or beliefs on the one hand; and systems for the promotion and protection of human rights, international, regional and national, on the othe.
- Revista Espanola de Derecho Internacional
- Revue belge de droit international
Directeurs: Olivier Corten and Anne Lagerwall
- Revue hellénique de droit international
- Revue Generale de Droit International Public
Directeur du comité de rédaction: Carlo Santulli
- Spanish Yearbook of International Law
Edited by Asociación Española de Profesores de Derecho Internacional y relaciones Internacionales
Since its first volume, the Yearbook has endeavoured to make a significant academic contribution to the on-going development of international law, with a particular focus on Spanish doctrine and practice. The SYbIL is the only publication edited by AEPDIRI written in English in order to reach the largest possible international audience.
- The International Journal of Children’s Rights
Editors-in-Chief: Prof. Laura Lundy, Prof. Helen Stalford
Focusing both on critical leadership and practical policy development, the articles in the preeminent International Journal of Children’s Rights reflect the perspectives of a broad range of disciplines and contribute to a greater understanding of children’s rights and their impact on the concept and development of childhood.
- The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
Editor-in-Chief: David Freestone
The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law addresses all aspects of marine and coastal law. In addition to normal in-depth scholarly articles, the Journal contains a distinctive feature: a vigorous ‘Current Legal Developments’ section which provides notes and commentary on international treaties and case law, national statute law, national court decisions, and other aspects of state practice; includes the relevant original documentation where appropriate; and monitors developments in relevant international organizations at a global and regional level. The format also includes a book review section.
- Tsinghua China Law Review
Editor-in-Chief: LIN Ziyu
Tsinghua China Law Review is a law journal committed to publishing high-quality articles pertinent to Chinese law. It is the first student-run, English-language journal of legal scholarship published by a mainland Chinese university. Established in 2008, the TCLR is dedicated to advancing the global academic discussion of all issues relating to China’s law. Over the past decade, we published scholarly articles and notes biannually in the United States. These articles are included in renowned databases such as HeinOnline, LexisNexis, and Lexis China. Since 2016, the TCLR has been indexed by ESCI. In 2017, the Impact-factor and Journal cite of the TCLR ranked 1st among English law journals in mainland China, and 9th among English journals in the field of Asian Law (source: 2017 Washington & Lee Law Journal Rankings).
- Utrecht Journal of International and European Law
Editor-in-Chief: Shan Patel
The Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (previously Merkourios) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, student-led law journal, publishing biannually on issues within international and European law. Since it was founded in 1981, it has been contributing to legal scholarship by promoting these fields’ progressive development and providing an international forum for interaction between academia, practitioners and students. Over time, the Journal has expanded its readership and is now distributed all over the world through databases such as HeinOnline and the Directory of Open Access Journals.
- Yearbook of International Disaster Law
Editor-in-Chief: Giulio Bartolini
The Yearbook of International Disaster Law published by Brill aims to represent a hub for critical debate in this emerging area of research and policy and to foster the interest of academics, practitioners, stakeholders and policy-makers on legal and institutional issues relevant to all forms of natural, technological and human-made hazards resulting in disasters. This Yearbook primarily addresses the international law dimension of relevant topics, alongside important regional and national dimensions relevant for further development of legal and policy initiatives, alongside important regional and national dimensions relevant for the further development of legal and policy initiatives. The Yearbook fills a current gap in international journals as there is no a specific hub devoted to this area of law notwithstanding the increasing academic interest towards legal issues related to disasters.
- Yearbook of International Environmental Law
Editors-in-Chief: Bharat H. Desai, Maria Gavouneli, Timo Koivurova, Xi Wang
- Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law
General Editor: T.D. Gill
The Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law is the world’s only annual publication devoted to the study of the laws governing armed conflict. It provides a truly international forum for high-quality, peer-reviewed academic articles focusing on this crucial branch of international law. Distinguished by contemporary relevance, the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law bridges the gap between theory and practice and serves as a useful reference tool for scholars, practitioners, military personnel, civil servants, diplomats, human rights workers and students.
- Yearbook of Polar Law Online
Editors-in-Chief: Gudmundur Alfredsson, Timo Koivurova
The Yearbook of Polar Law, based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland, covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic.